Free or Inexpensive Online Courses
Coursera Interaction Design Course
I took this class back in the day when it was Human Computer Interaction and free. They've really revamped and modernized the syllabus, and it seems way more relevant to current UX needs. The course isn't free anymore, however, but it is super reasonable at only $39 per course. You can take the whole unit for $280. Not bad to walk away with a working foundation of UX. Those who are perhaps more advance can take classes piecemeal as well (I'm looking at you developers and visual designers looking to make the switch)
Interaction Design Foundation Courses
IDF features several self-paced UX courses on everything from UI patterns, usability, mobile design, testing and more. Courses are free for members and individual professional can join for only $15 per month.
The Hipper Element: UX Crash Course: 31 Fundamentals
The Hipper Element takes readers through a true crash course; learn all about the basics and fundamentals. This a great way for those who are considering UX as a career to get a glimpse into what we do at no cost--it's free!
52 Weeks of UX
Similar to The Hipper Element's course, but longer. This is awesome for career changers who need to learn at their own pace and can't commit to a class or course. Meant to span an entire year, self-guided users can breeze through much more quickly.
Most UX tools are pretty simple to use and have at least a month long trial period. Lynda has tutorials on all the major tools you need to know: Sketch, Omnigraffle, Axure, InDesign and more. It's about $30 per month which is a lot less than an MFA.
There are several great YouTube tutorials on most softwares out there. I still use YouTube all the time if I can't figure out how to do a certain task.
Those who want a class or intensive course, check out these resources. These are not cheap--averaging about $5,000+, but you'll learn face-to-face with some serious experts.
Bentley University, UX Boot Camp, Massachusettes
Learn UX basics in a matter of days on a gorgeous college campus. Bentley U also offers UX certification if you have more time to dedicate to learning.
Cooper U, UX Boot Camp, San Francisco
A slightly cheaper option at Cooper U in the heart of San Francisco.
General Assembly, Various locations & online
GA is one of the more well-known immersive programs. It's not cheap, but the professionals I've met who have come out of their immersive programs speak very highly of the program. Some of the most talented professionals I know teach for the program, too. They also offer several types of courses of various lengths.
Books for Beginners
Don't Make Me Think by Steve Krug
The Elements of User Experience: User-Centered Design for the Web and Beyond by Jesse James Garrett
A Project Guide to UX Design: For User Experience Designers in the Field or in the Making by Russ Unger and Carolyn Chandler
Storytelling for User Experience by Whitney Quesenbery and Kevin Brooks
The Design of Everyday Things by Don Norman
Smashing Book 5: Real Life Responsive Web Design by Smashing Magazine
People and Publications to Follow
Twitter - @jmspool
Jesse James Garett
Twitter - @usertesting
Blog - User Testing Blog
User Interface Engineering
Blog - Brainsparks
Twitter - @michematthews